Monday, February 24, 2014

Balanced Diet and its Components

A Balanced Diet comprises healthy and diverse foods. It is essential for promoting good health.
A Healthy Diet helps in maintain or improve health.
It is important for the prevention of many chronic health risks such as : Obesity, heart diseases, diabetes, and cancer.
A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of all nutrients, and an adequate amount of water.
Nutrients can be obtained from many different foods, so there are a wide variety of diets that may be considered healthy diets. The components of food are:
1. Carbohydrates
The carbohydrates in our food are obtained mainly from the plants sources like wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, sago (sabu-dana), peas, beans and fruits. Milk also contains a sugar called lactose. The sugar is also obtained from food. The world’s three main cereal crops (or starchy food) which provide us carbohydrates are: wheat. rice and maize. In other words, wheat, rice and maize are abundant in starch. Our of these, food from wheat is prepared in the form of roti, bread. Rice is used a in various other form of food products such as roti, bread, noodles, rice, dosa, idli, potatoes.
2. Fats
Fats are supplied to our body by many foods like butter, milk, egg etc. All the cooking oils provide us fats The fats which we eat in our food or dietary fats. All the above given food items contains dietary fats. We shall now discuss the major fatty acids resent in some common dietary products. Butter, coconut oil, animal fats and plant fats are some sources of fats.
3. Proteins
We can get proteins from plant sources as well as animal sources. Some of plant proteins are; ground-nuts, beans, whole Cereals like wheat and maize, and pulses. Some of the best sources of animal proteins are; Lean Meat (meat without fats), Fish, Eggs, Milk and Cheese. These are all body building foods. The most valuable proteins are found in milk, eggs. They contain all the amino acids required by our body. These proteins are particularly need by children.
4. Minerals
The metals, non metals and their salts are called minerals because they are mined form the soil, ground and the earth. Though our body requires a large number of minerals, but the more important once are: Iron, Iodine, Calcium, Sodium, and potassium.
 IRON : It is the most important mineral required by our body. Iron is needed to prepare a protein called Hemoglobin present in blood. This hemoglobin helps us in transporting oxygen form the lungs to the body cells through the blood. Some of major sources of iron are: Liver, Kidney, bajra, ragi, eggs etc.
 IODINE: Iodine is another important minerals needed by our body. Iodine is needed small quantities for the preparation of thyroid hormone called thyroxin. Some of the major sources of iodine are: fish sea-food, and iodized salt.
 CALCIUM:- Calcium salts are required for making bones and teeth, to help blood clotting, and for the proper working of the muscles. The major sources of calcium are: Milk, Milk products, Like Cheese, Beans, Green leafy, vegetables, whole gram meat, fish, ragi etc.
PHOSPHOROUS:- phosphorus are also require for the formation of bones and teeth. Phosphorus is also require for the conversation of carbohydrates in energy. Phosphorus is important because it is a compound of A.T.P.,D.N.A., R.N.A. The major sources of phosphorus are: Milk, Vegetable, Bajra, Ragi, nuts.
5. Vitamins
Some of vitamins are soluble in water whereas others are soluble only in fats or oils, so, on the basis of their solubility, all the vitamins can be divided into two classes or two groups; water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins.
1. Water soluble vitamins are;- vitamin B-complex and Vitamins C
2. Fat soluble vitamins are;- Vitamin-A, Vitamin-D, Vitamin-K Vitamin-E Called pernicious anemia. The various source of this vitamin are : meat, liver milk & eggs etc.
 VITAMIN C
The chemical name of vitamin c is ascorbic acids. It is a water soluble vitamin. Vitamin C is necessary for keeping teeth, gums & joints healthy. It is also increase the resistance of our body to infection & help fight diseases. The various source of vitamin C are amla, lime, orange & tomatoes.
 VITAMIN D
The chemical name of vitamin D is calciferol. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin . Vitamin D is necessary for the normal growth of bones & teeth because it increase the absorption of calcium & phosphorus into the body. The various sources of vitamin D are : milk, fish , egg & butter. Vitamin D are also produced in our body when the skin is exposed to sunlight.
 VITAMIN E
The chemical name of Vitamin E is tocopherol. It is family: Times New Roman”>The chemical name of Vitamin E is tocopherol. It is fat soluble vitamin. Vitamin E is necessary for moral reproduction, normal functioning of muscles and protection of liver. The various sources of vitamin E are: green leafy vegetables, milk, butter, tomatoes and wheat germ oil.
VITAMIN K (PHYLLOQUININE)
Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin which is known as phylloquinine. Vitamin K is necessary for the normal clotting of blood and preventing hemorrhage. The various sources of vitamin K are: green leafy vegetables like spinach, cabbage, tomatoes and soybean.
6. Water and Roughage
The amount of water needed by body depends on one’s age type of work, and the climate. Our body gets a lot of water from many of the food items which we eat. For example, fruits, vegetables, meat and fish give a lot of water to our body. Most of the water needed by our body, However, comes from the plain “drinking water “, tea, coffee, milk etc. Some of the water in our body comes as a by product of the oxidation of glucose during the digestion of the food. In fact, 1 molecule of glucose on oxidation in the body produces 6 molecules of water. Though roughage is not a food, it is an important part of balanced diet. Roughage neither gives us energy like carbohydrates and neither fats nor builds our body like protein do, but it is important for the normal working of the digestive system. The sources of roughage in our food are : salad ; vegetables & fruit with skin high fiber contents. Cabbage is one vegetable which provide us a lot of roughage. Corn cob & half – crushed, wheat also provide roughage to our body, along with other nutrients. All these food items have cellulose content which act as roughage. These fibrous material are good for digestion and helps in bowel movement.
If all the components are present in proper proportions and quantity for maintaining the body in perfect state of health, activity and development then the food is called a balanced diet.

No comments: